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Telephones Top Facts

Mobile phone
A mobile phone (also known as a cellular phone, cell phone and a hand phone) is a device that can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link whilst moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile phone operator, allowing access to the public telephone network. By contrast, a cordless telephone is used only within the short range of a single, private base station.
Mobile phone1973 introductionsMobile phonesNew mediaTelephonyMobile telecommunicationsVideotelephonyEmbedded systemsMobile telecommunication services

Telephone
The telephone (from the Greek: τῆλε, tēle, "far" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice"), colloquially referred to as a phone, is a telecommunications device that transmits and receives sounds, usually the human voice. Telephones are a point-to-point communication system whose most basic function is to allow two people separated by large distances to talk to each other.
TelephoneItalian inventionsCanadian inventions1876 introductionsTelephonyScottish inventionsDiscovery and invention controversiesTelecommunications equipmentAmerican inventionsOffice equipment

Voice over IP
Voice over IP (VoIP, or voice over Internet Protocol) commonly refers to the communication protocols, technologies, methodologies, and transmission techniques involved in the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet. Other terms commonly associated with VoIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband (VoBB), broadband telephony, and broadband phone.
Voice over IPVoice over IPTelecommunications termsBroadbandVideotelephonyAudio network protocols

BT Group
BT Group plc is a British multinational telecommunications services company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is one of the largest telecommunications services companies in the world and has operations in over 170 countries. Through its BT Global Services division it is a major supplier of telecoms services to corporate and government customers worldwide.
BT GroupBritish Royal Warrant holdersCompanies listed on the London Stock ExchangeTelecommunications companies of the United KingdomInternet service providers of the United KingdomBT Group1981 establishments in the United KingdomOrganisations based in the City of LondonCompanies established in 1981

Alcatel-Lucent
Alcatel-Lucent is a global telecommunications equipment corporation, headquartered in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France. It provides telecommunications solutions to service providers, enterprises, and governments around the world, enabling these customers to deliver voice, data, and video services. The company focuses on fixed, mobile, and converged networking hardware, IP technologies, software, and services.
Alcatel-LucentCompanies established in 2006Telecommunications equipment vendorsCompanies formerly listed on the Tokyo Stock ExchangeTelecommunications companies of the United StatesAlcatel-LucentTelecommunications companies of France2006 establishments in France

Telephony
In telecommunications, telephony encompasses the general use of equipment to provide communication over distances, specifically by connecting telephones to each other. The technology is associated with the electronic transmission of voice, fax, or other information between distant parties using systems historically associated with the telephone, a hand-held device containing both a speaker or transmitter and a receiver.
TelephonyTelephonyHistory of telecommunications

Landline
A landline telephone (also known as land line, land-line, main line, and fixed-line) refers to a phone which uses a solid medium telephone line such as a metal wire or fiber optic cable for transmission as distinguished from a mobile cellular line which uses radio waves for transmission. In 2003, the CIA reported approximately 1.263 billion main telephone lines worldwide. China had more than any other country at 350 million and the United States was second with 268 million.
LandlineTelephonyLocal loop

Cellular network
A cellular network or mobile network is a radio network distributed over land areas called cells, each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver, known as a cell site or base station. When joined together these cells provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area.
Cellular networkRadio resource managementMobile telecommunicationsTelecommunications infrastructure

Plain old telephone service
Plain old telephone service (POTS) is the voice-grade telephone service that remains the basic form of residential and small business service connection to the telephone network in many parts of the world. The name is a retronym, and is a reflection of the telephone service still available after the advent of more advanced forms of telephony such as ISDN, mobile phones and VoIP.
Plain old telephone serviceTelephone services

Payphone
A payphone is a public telephone, often located in a phone booth or a privacy hood, with pre-payment by inserting money, a credit or debit card, or a telephone card. Payphones are often found in public places, transportation hubs such as airports or train stations, convenience stores, malls, casinos, and on street corners. By agreement with the landlord, either the phone company pays rent for the location and keeps the revenue, or the landlord pays rent for the phone and shares the revenue.
PayphoneAmerican inventionsPublic phonesVendingStreet furniture

Satellite phone
A satellite telephone, satellite phone, or satphone is a type of mobile phone that connects to orbiting satellites instead of terrestrial cell sites. They provide similar functionality to terrestrial mobile telephones; voice, short messaging service and low-bandwidth internet access are supported through most systems. Depending on the architecture of a particular system, coverage may include the entire Earth, or only specific regions.
Satellite phoneMobile telecommunicationsSatellite telephonyMobile phonesEmergency communication

Telephone operator
A telephone operator is either a person who provides assistance to a telephone caller, usually in the placing of operator assisted telephone calls such as calls from a pay phone, collect calls (called reversed-charge calls in the UK), calls which are billed to a credit card, station-to-station and person-to-person calls, and certain international calls which cannot be dialed directly.
Telephone operatorTelephonyBusiness and financial operations occupations

Cordless telephone
A cordless telephone or portable telephone replaces the handset cord with a radio link. The handset communicates with a base station connected to a fixed telephone line. The range is limited usually to the same building or some short distance from the base station. The base station attaches to the telephone network the same way a corded telephone does. The base station on subscriber premises is what differentiates a cordless telephone from a mobile telephone.
Cordless telephoneAmerican inventionsTelephony equipmentConsumer electronics

Manitoba Telecom Services
Manitoba Telecom Services Inc. , or MTS, formerly Manitoba Telephone System, is the primary telecommunications carrier in the Canadian province of Manitoba and the fourth largest telecommunications provider in Canada with 7000 employees. It provides local and long-distance phone services, television service, Internet service and wireless services including digital PCS, cellular, and paging.
Manitoba Telecom ServicesCommunications in ManitobaPublic utilitiesCompanies listed on the Toronto Stock ExchangeFormer Crown corporations of CanadaS&P/TSX Composite IndexTelecommunications companies of CanadaCompanies based in Winnipeg

Rotary dial
The rotary dial is a device mounted on or in a telephone or switchboard that is designed to send electrical pulses, known as pulse dialing, corresponding to the number dialed. The early form of the rotary dial used lugs on a finger plate instead of holes. Almon Brown Strowger filed the first patent for a rotary dial, U.S. patent #486,909, on December 21, 1891, that was later issued to him on November 29, 1892.
Rotary dialTelephony signalsTelephony equipmentObsolete technologies

Standard Telephones and Cables
Standard Telephones and Cables Ltd was a British telephone, telegraph, radio, telecommunications and related equipment R&D manufacturer. During its history STC invented and developed several groundbreaking new technologies including PCM and optical fibres. The company began life in London as International Western Electric in 1883. The company was owned from 1925 to mid 1982 by ITT of the USA.
Standard Telephones and CablesCompanies established in 1883Companies formerly listed on the London Stock ExchangeCompanies based in LondonCompanies disestablished in 1991Companies associated with ICLDefunct telecommunications companies of the United KingdomElectronics companies of the United Kingdom

Radiotelephone
A radiotelephone is a communications system for transmission of speech over radio. Radiotelephone systems are not necessarily interconnected with the public "land line" telephone network. "Radiotelephone" is often used to describe the usage of radio spectrum where it is important to distinguish the type of emission from, for example, radiotelegraph or video signals.
RadiotelephoneMobile telecommunicationsTelephony equipmentMaritime communication

SaskTel
Saskatchewan Telecommunications Holding Corporation (SaskTel) is the leading full service communications provider in Saskatchewan, with $1.1 billion in annual revenue and over 1.4 million customer connections including over 568,000 wireless accesses, 528,000 wireline network accesses, 230,000 internet accesses and 85,000 Max™ (IPTV) subscribers.
SaskTelCrown corporations of SaskatchewanCompanies based in Regina, SaskatchewanCommunications in SaskatchewanInternet service providers of CanadaTelecommunications companies of Canada

Nordic Mobile Telephone
NMT (Nordisk MobilTelefoni or Nordiska MobilTelefoni-gruppen, Nordic Mobile Telephony in English) is the first fully automatic cellular phone system. It was specified by Nordic telecommunications administrations and opened for service in 1 October 1981 as a response to the increasing congestion and heavy requirements of the manual mobile phone networks: ARP in Finland and MTD (450 MHz) in Sweden and Denmark and OLT in Norway.
Nordic Mobile TelephoneMobile radio telephone systems1981 introductions

KCOM Group
KCOM Group, formerly known as Kingston Communications, is a UK communications and IT services provider. Its headquarters is in Kingston upon Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire, where subsidiary business unit KC serves local residents and businesses with Internet and telephony services. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index.
KCOM GroupMonopoliesCompanies listed on the London Stock ExchangeTelecommunications companies of the United KingdomInternet televisionKCOM Group brandsInternet service providers of the United KingdomCompanies of Kingston upon Hull

VoIP phone
A VoIP phone uses voice over IP (VoIP) technologies allowing telephone calls to be made over an IP network such as the Internet instead of the ordinary PSTN system. Calls can traverse the Internet, or a private IP network such as that of a company. The phones use control protocols such as Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) or one of various proprietary protocols such as that used by Skype.
VoIP phoneVoice over IP

Telecommunications device for the deaf
A telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) is a teleprinter, an electronic device for text communication over a telephone line, that is designed for use by persons with hearing or speech difficulties. Other names for the device include teletypewriter, TTY, textphone, and minicom. The typical TDD is a device about the size of a typewriter or laptop computer with a QWERTY keyboard and small screen that uses LEDs or an LCD screen to display typed text electronically.
Telecommunications device for the deafAssistive technologyDeafness

Postal, telegraph and telephone service
A postal, telegraph, and telephone service (or PTT) is a government agency responsible for postal mail, telegraph, and telephone services. Such monopolies existed in many countries, though not in North America or Japan. Many PTTs have been partially or completely privatized in recent years. In some of those privatizations, the PTT was renamed completely, whereas in others, the name of the privatized corporation has been only slightly modified, such as PT Telkom in Indonesia.
Postal, telegraph and telephone servicePostal systemTelecommunications economicsTelecommunications organizationsTypes of government agencies

Mobile content
Mobile content is any type of media which is viewed or used on mobile phones, like ringtones, graphics, discount offers, games, movies, and GPS navigation. As mobile phone use has grown since the mid 1990s, the significance of the devices in everyday life has grown accordingly.
Mobile contentMobile content

Speaking tube
A speaking tube or voicepipe is a device based on two cones connected by an air pipe through which speech can be transmitted over an extended distance. While its most common use was in intra-ship communications, the principle was also used in fine homes and offices of the 19th century, as well as fine automobiles, military aircraft, and even locomotives. For most purposes, the device was outmoded by the telephone and its widespread adoption.
Speaking tubeTelephonyHistory of telecommunications

Four-wire circuit
In telecommunication, a four-wire circuit is a two-way circuit using two paths so arranged that the respective signals are transmitted in one direction only by one path and in the other direction by the other path. Late in the 20th century, almost all connections between telephone exchanges were four-wire circuits, while conventional phone lines into residences and businesses were two-wire circuits.
Four-wire circuitTelephonyCommunication circuits

Field telephone
Field telephones are mobile telephones intended for military use, designed to withstand wartime conditions. They can draw power from their own battery, from a telephone exchange (via a central battery known as CB), or from an external power source. Some need no battery, being sound-powered telephones. Field telephones were first used in the First World War to direct troops. They replaced flag signals and the telegraph as an efficient means of communication.
Field telephoneMilitary communicationsTelephony equipment

Push-button telephone
The push-button telephone was first invented in 1941, and is a telephone with push-buttons or keys, and which eventually replaced rotary dial telephones that were first used in 1891. The first push-button telephone was invented in the labs of Bell Telephone; however, these models were only prototypes, and were not brought to the commercial market. The first publicly-available push-button telephone was released in 1963, by the Bell System.
Push-button telephoneTelephony equipment

Ringdown
In telephony, ringdown is a method of signaling an operator in which telephone ringing current is sent over the line to operate a lamp or cause the operation of a self-locking relay known as a drop. Ringdown (a) is used in manual operation, as distinguished from dialing, (b) uses a continuous or pulsed ac signal transmitted over the line, and (c) may be used with or without a switchboard.
RingdownTelephony equipmentCommunication circuits

Siemens Mobile
Siemens Mobile was a mobile phone manufacturer and a wholly owned subsidiary of Siemens AG. Siemens sold Siemens Mobile to the Taiwan-based BenQ in 2005.
Siemens MobileSiemens mobile phones

Candlestick telephone
The candlestick telephone is a style of telephone that was common from the late 1890s to the 1930s.
Candlestick telephoneTelephony equipmentWestern Electric telephones

Emergency telephone
An emergency telephone is a phone specifically provided for making calls to emergency services and is most often found in a place of special danger or where it is likely that there will only be a need to make emergency calls. Emergency telephones are commonly found alongside major roads and on university campuses throughout the world.
Emergency telephoneSafety equipmentPublic phonesEmergency road servicesStreet furniture

Landlines

Landlines

Sound-powered telephone
A sound-powered telephone is a communication device that allows users to talk to each other with the use of a handset, similar to a conventional telephone, but without the use of external power. This technology has been used for at least six decades for both routine and emergency communication on ships to allow communication between key locations on a vessel even if power, including batteries, is no longer available.
Sound-powered telephoneTelephony equipment

Irish phone tapping scandal (1983)
Michael Noonan revealed on 20 January 1983 that the previous Fianna Fáil government had authorised illegal phone tapping of the journalists Geraldine Kennedy, Bruce Arnold and Vincent Browne. Seán Doherty signed warrants for the taps while Minister for Justice.
Irish phone tapping scandal (1983)1983 in IrelandTelephone tappingPolitical scandals in the Republic of IrelandFianna FáilSurveillance scandals

Long-distance operator
In telephony, the long-distance operator is a telephone operator available to assist with making long distance telephone calls, answering billing questions, making collect calls and other functions, including emergency assistance.
Long-distance operatorTelephony

Radio telephone

Radio telephone

Advanced American Telephones
VTech Innovation, L.P. , doing business as Advanced American Telephones, is a telephone manufacturing company.
Advanced American TelephonesVTechAlcatel-LucentAT&T

Pay telephone

Pay telephone

Courtesy telephone
A courtesy telephone is a telephone located in airport terminals, large train stations, hotel lobbies, and other places where many travellers are expected, which is used to relay messages to a specific person. It is typically used in connection with a public address system announcement of the style "Jane Doe, please pick up the nearest white courtesy telephone.
Courtesy telephonePublic phones

Multi-Line Extension telephone
This article refers to a specific series of historic telephones. For multi-line phone systems in general, see private branch exchange or key telephone system. A Multi-Line Extension, or MLX telephone, is a no-longer-manufactured series of digital telephone used with several PBX systems sold throughout the 1980s and 1990s by AT&T.
Multi-Line Extension telephoneWestern Electric telephones

ETB (company)
ETB, formally known as Empresa de Telecomunicaciones de Bogotá S.A. (English: Bogotá Telecommunications Company), is the second largest telecommunications company in Colombia. It is headquartered in Bogotá, D.C..
ETB (company)Companies listed on the Stock Exchange of ColombiaCompanies established in 1947Telecommunications companies of Colombia

Secure telephone
A secure telephone is a telephone that provides voice security in the form of end-to-end encryption for the telephone call, and in some cases also the mutual authentication of the call parties, protecting them against a man-in-the-middle attack. Concerns about massive growth of telephone tapping incidents lead to growing demand for secure telephones.
Secure telephoneTelephony equipmentCryptographic hardwareSecure communication

Minister of Posts, Telegraphs, and Telephones
The Minister of Posts and Telegraphs, to which was later added the charge of Telephones (the position was later named "Minister of Posts and Telecommunications"), was, in the Government of France, the cabinet member in charge of the French Postal Service and development of the national telecommunication system. The position was occasionally combined with Minister of Commerce and Industry or Minister of Public Works.
Minister of Posts, Telegraphs, and TelephonesFormer ministriesCommunications in FranceGovernment ministries of France

Template:Western Electric

Template:Western Electric

Postes, télégraphes et téléphones (France)

Postes, télégraphes et téléphones (France)

Alexander v Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd (No 2)
Alexander and Wall v Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd (No 2) [1991 1991] IRLR 287 is a UK labour law case concerning the scope of protection for people to employment rights. It took the view that an employment contract requires
Alexander v Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd (No 2)1991 in the United KingdomHigh Court of Justice casesUnited Kingdom labour case law1991 in case law